Alderman D.  Prolotherapy for musculoskeletal pain.  .  Practical Pain Management, January/February 2007.  This is a relatively easy read and a good overview. http://www.prolotherapy.com/ppm2007.pdf.


K. Dean Reeves, MD; Bradley D. Fullerton, MD, FAAPMR and Gaston Topol, MD Evidence-Based Regenerative Injection Therapy (Prolotherapy) in Sports Medicine sports Medicine Resource Manual 2008 Chapter 50.  Well-documented, lots of useful references, technical.


Rabago D, Best TM, Beamsley M, Patterson J  A systematic review of prolotherapy for chronic musculoskeletal pain  Clin J Sport Med. 2005 Sep;15(5):376-80
David Rabago Prolotherapy for chronic musculoskeletal pain Chapter 2, pages 15 to 44 Complementary and Alternative Therapies in the Aging Population, edited by Ronald Ross Watson, published by Elsevier 2009. This is the best review of all the research that has been done on prolotherapy but very technical.


Prolo your pain away! Ross A. Hauser, M.D., Marion A. Hauser, M.S., Beulah Land Press 2004   A book on the subject, easy to read and understand, many religious statements


Liu Y2K et al. An in situ study of the influence of a sclerosing solution in rabbit medial collateral ligaments and its junction strength. Connective tissue research 1983; 11:95-102. The ligaments on the treated side where 28% thicker and 27% stronger than on the control side.


Walter Grote, Rosa Delucia, Robert Waxman, Aleksandra Zgierska, John Wilson, David Rabago.   Repair of a complete anterior cruciate tear using prolotherapy: a case report.   International Musculoskeletal Medicine 2009 Vol 31 No 4 159-165 Serial MRIs document the regrowth of a completely torn ACL following prolotherapy. The last MRI shows a normal looking ACL.


Bradley D. Fullerton, MD  High-Resolution Ultrasound and Magnetic Resonance Imaging to Document Tissue Repair After Prolotherapy: A Report of 3 Cases Arch Phys Med Rehabil Vol 89, February 2008  377-385. Serial MRIs and ultrasounds show the repair of a patellar tendon, an ankle ligament and the medial meniscus of the knee using prolotherapy.


Reeves, KD,Hassanein K, randomized prospective double-blind placebo-controlled study of dextrose prolotherapy for knee osteoarthritis with or without ACL laxityAltern Ther Health Med 2000; 6:68  80. Those treated had significantly less pain and swelling and increased range of motion as well as evidence of regrowth of cartilage one year later on x-ray. http://www.drreevesonline.com/Knee%20Arthritis%20Study.pdf  

For a summary, go to http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10710805


George Stuart Hackett ligament and tendon relaxation treated by prolotherapy third edition Charles C. Thomas publisher library of congress catalog card number 57 — 13257 1958. The first book on the subject. He followed 1656 patients between 2 and 19 years after this treatment. He claimed that 82% of the subjects he treated reported their pain was relieved.


Scarpone M., Rabago D., Zgierska A, Arbogest J, Snell E. The  efficacy of prolotherapy for lateral epicondylosis: a pilot study.  May 2008 clinical Journal of sports medicine volume 18(3), pp 248 -254. People suffering from tennis elbow pain from six months to 10 years.  12 got prolotherapy and 12 got saline. All the treated subjects and none of the controls were better by 16 weeks.


M.J. Yelland, [et al] Prolotherapy injections and eccentric loading exercises for painful Achilles tendinosis: a randomised trial. /. British Journal of Sports Medicine 2009.  Those that received eccentric loading exercises plus prolotherapy did better than the others.


Topol GA, Reeves KD and Hassanein, KM Efficacy of dextrose prolotherapy in elite male kicking sports athletes with groin pain  Arch Phys Rehabil 86, 697-702 

A study of 24 rugby and soccer players suffering from groin pull and unable to play for an average of 15 1/2 months treated with 2 to 6 injection sessions of prolotherapy at monthly intervals. 6 to 32 months later 22 of the 24 where back playing full-time.


Reeves KD, Hasseinein K. Randomized  prospective placebo-controlled double-blind study of dextrose prolotherapy for osteoarthritic thumb and finger(DIP PIP and trapezio- metacarpal joints): evidence of clinical efficacy.  Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine 6, 311-320.  Those treated had improved flexion of their fingers and less pain with movement. One year later, there was less excessive bone growth in the joint and more cartilage seen on x-ray.
http://drreeves.com/Low-back-pain.html an excellent review of all the literature on prolotherapy in low back pain.


Donna Alderman, DO prolotherapy for low back pain, reasonable and conservative approach to musculoskeletal low back pain,disc disease, and sciatica. Practical pain management, May 2007 58-63.  A good review, easy to read and understand and four case reports.


Klein RG et al. A randomized double-blind trial of dextrose glycerin phenol injections for chronic low back pain J spinal disord 1993; 6:23 33. 77% of subjects (53% of controls) had greater than 50% pain control at six months.


Ongley MJ et al. a new approach to the treatment of chronic low back pain. Lancet 1987; 2:143 – 6. 88% of subjects (39% of controls) had >50% pain reduction at six months.


Ross A. Hauser, MD, Marion A. Hauser MS RD  Dextrose Prolotherapy for Unresolved Low Back Pain: A Retrospective Case Series Study  Journal of prolotherapy 2009; 3:145 – 155         Of 145 patients with low back pain for more than four years treated with prolotherapy, 89% had more than 50% pain relief, 75% were able to completely stop taking pain medication.


Centeno et al • Prolotherapy for Cervical Instability 67 Pain Physician Vol. 8, No. 1, 2005 Pain Physician. 2005;8:67-72, ISSN 1533-3159  Six people with whiplash neck pain had much greater cervical spine stability and much less pain six months after prolotherapy.


Linetsky FS, Botwin K, Gorfine L, et al. PositionPaper: Regenerative injection therapy (RIT) effectiveness and appropriate usage. The Florida Academy of Pain Medicine. May 24, 2001. http://www.aaomed.org/library/documents/RIT_Position_Paper_052301.pdf.

Rabago D, Zgierska A, Fortney L, Kijowski R, Mundt M, Ryan M, Grettie J, Patterson JJ.. J Altern Complement Med. 2012 Apr;18(4):408-14.Hypertonic dextrose injections (prolotherapy) for knee osteoarthritis: results of a single-arm uncontrolled study with 1-year follow-up. PMID: 22515800 36 participants reported overall WOMAC score improvement 4 weeks after the first injection session, and continued to improve through the 52-week follow-up

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